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Judging the quality of outdoor sports apparel fabrics
- May 24, 2018 -

Although the types of outdoor sports are very wide, professional outdoor sports clothing such as assault suits are mainly for alpine sports such as mountain climbing and skiing. In addition to the physical and technical requirements of the participants, outdoor sports also require outdoor clothing to adapt to bad weather and complex geography to protect the safety of the athletes.



Although there is no essential difference between outdoor sportswear and homewear, due to the two characteristics of outdoor and sports, the requirements for clothing are relatively strict and demanding: outdoor sports have a large amount of heat, sweat evaporation, and require clothing to have good heat dissipation and breathability. In the wild will inevitably encounter wind, snow and fog, clothing must have a certain degree of waterproof performance Outdoor sports want to minimize weight, clothing should be as light as the wild wind, cold mountains, windproof thermal performance requirements of limited outdoor washing conditions, clothing, antibacterial, deodorant and anti-staining Stain requirements are high.



Fieldwork climbing climbing through forests, garments require good tensile and tear resistance... These performance requirements are very demanding from a textile technology point of view, and even many of the indicators are in conflict. Any single natural or chemical fiber can not meet these requirements, but can only achieve these functions through multiple fiber composites and multi-channel chemical finishing.



1, warmth:



Although the warmth is closely related to the thickness of the fabric, outdoor sports do not allow the clothing to be overly heavy. Therefore, it is necessary to keep warm and light to meet the special requirements of outdoor sportswear. The most common method is to add special ceramic powders containing chromium oxide, magnesium oxide, zirconium oxide, etc. to synthetic fiber spinning fluids such as polyester, especially nano-sized fine ceramic powders, which can absorb visible light such as sunlight and convert them into Heat energy can also reflect the far infrared rays emitted by the human body itself, so it has excellent thermal insulation and heat storage properties. Of course, far-infrared ceramic powders, binders and cross-linking agents can also be formulated as finishing agents. The woven fabrics are subjected to coating treatment, and then dried and cured to adhere the nano-ceramic powders to the surface of the fabrics and yarns. between. This finishing agent emits far-infrared rays with a wavelength of 8 to 14 μm, and it also has health functions such as bacteriostasis, deodorization, and promotion of blood circulation.



In addition, according to the principle of bionics, the structure of the polar bear hair is used to make the interior of the polyester fiber porous, so that the fiber contains a large amount of non-circulating air, and the outer part is spirally curled to maintain the bulkiness. Play a good insulation effect. Of course, it is one of the most traditional measures to maintain warmth by making clothes and even fabrics double or even three layers, so that the air circulation layer does not increase.



2, waterproof moisture permeability:



Sports games emit a lot of sweat, but outdoor and inevitably encountered wind and rain, which in itself is a pair of contradictions: it is necessary to prevent rain and snow from soaking, but also in time to discharge the body's sweat emitted. Fortunately, the human body emits water vapor in the single-molecule state, while rain and snow are liquid droplets in an aggregate state. Their volume sizes are far from each other. In addition, the liquid water has a characteristic called surface tension, which is the characteristic of gathering its own volume. The water we see on the lotus leaf is a granular water droplet instead of a flat water stain. This is Because the surface of the lotus leaves has a layer of waxy hair tissue, the water droplets cannot spread and penetrate through this layer of waxy hair due to surface tension. If you dissolve a drop of detergent or detergent into the bead, because the detergent can greatly reduce the surface tension of the liquid, the bead will immediately disintegrate and spread out on the lotus leaf. Waterproof and breathable garments use the surface tension characteristics of water and coat the fabric with a layer of PTFE (the same chemical composition as the “King of Corrosion Resistant Fiber” polytetrafluoroethylene PTFE and different physical structure). The chemical coating, so that the water droplets as tight as possible can not spread, infiltrate the surface of the fabric, and thus can not penetrate the fabric pores. At the same time, the coating is porous, and the water vapor in the single-molecule state can be smoothly transmitted through the capillary pores between the fibers to the fabric surface.



If you stop and rest in the wild after performing a large amount of exercise, it may be because the outside air temperature is low and the sweat cannot be evacuated in time to form water droplets on the inner layer of the clothing. This makes people feel uncomfortable. This is called " Dew condensation phenomenon. There is a special moisture-permeable finishing process called “low dew condensation”. It uses polyurethane (PU) and hydrophilic nano-ceramic powders to coat fabrics and absorbs when the body evaporates large amounts of sweat. More sweat vapor, thus avoiding the phenomenon that the internal water vapor of the clothes exceeds the saturated vapor pressure and turns into water droplets.



In addition to the fiber and coating, it is also possible to absorb moisture on the fabric structure. For example, with a double-layered structure, the close-fitting inner layer uses hydrophobic fibers, while the outer layer uses hydrophilic fibers, so that sweat can rely on capillary action to transfer from the skin to the inner fibers, and then due to the outer hydrophilicity. The binding of fibers and water molecules is stronger than that of the inner hydrophobic fibers, and the water molecules are once again transferred from the inner layer of the fabric to the outer layer and finally to the atmosphere.



3, antibacterial deodorant:



Due to the characteristics of the movement, a large amount of sweat and sebaceous glands are secreted. In outdoor conditions, it is not always possible to change clothes. Under a suitable temperature and humidity environment, microorganisms multiply in large numbers, causing indecent odors and itchiness. Therefore, regular outdoor sportswear is finished through antibacterial and deodorant chemistry. The method of finishing is generally to fix organic quaternary amine type, imidazoline type surfactant or silver, copper and other heavy metal ions having bactericidal action to the fibers through the resin and the cross-linking agent to make them have certain washability. Of course, an important principle in the selection of fungicides must be non-toxic or low-toxic, otherwise it is the ultimate goal. In recent years, Japan has done a lot of research on the research of natural antibacterial finishing agents, such as the use of aromatic oil extracts with a bactericidal action such as aloe, artemisia leaves, loquat leaves, roses, etc., which are coated in porous organic microcapsules or porous The ceramic powder adheres to the fabric and is cross-linked and fixed by a resin, and the bactericide is slowly released through a mechanical action such as friction and back pressure to achieve durable antibacterial finishing. This kind of natural antibacterial agent is not only non-toxic and harmless, but also has certain health care functions. It should be the development direction of antibacterial finishing. However, since the means for fixing the antibacterial agent are currently limited, the antibacterial agent has insufficient washability, and the antibacterial performance decreases every time it is washed, and generally disappears after several dozen times.



US Dow Corning AEGIS Antimicrobial Antimicrobial Agent uses molecular bonding to distribute eighteen long carbon chains evenly on the surface of the fabric and integrates it with the fabric fibers. After that, the Dow Corning AEGIS Antimicrobial Antimicrobial Agent relies on physical action for sterilization, unlike other chemical sterilization methods. To achieve a permanent antibacterial effect.



4, anti-pollution and easy decontamination:



Outdoor sports often travel in the muddy, wet mountain forest. It is inevitable that the clothes are rubbed dirty. This requires the appearance of the clothing to be less likely to be contaminated by stains, and once it is contaminated, it must be easily cleaned and removed. Changing the surface properties of the fiber greatly increases the surface tension of the fabric, making it difficult for oil stains and other stains to penetrate inside the fabric. Minor stains can be removed by wiping with a damp cloth, and heavier stains are also easy to clean. The anti-pollution finishing not only can prevent the pollution of oil pollution, but also has the performance of waterproof and moisture permeability. It is generally called “three anti-finishing” (water repellent, oil repellent, and anti-pollution) and belongs to a more practical and effective advanced chemical finishing method. Commonly used in the outer layer of clothing and backpacks, shoes, tents fabric finishing.



5, anti-static and anti-radiation finishing



Mountain climbing is the core content of outdoor sports. In addition to the original jungle, the high altitude above 3,000 meters above sea level is low in air pressure, water is easy to evaporate, and the environment is generally relatively dry, while outdoor clothing is basically made of chemical fiber fabrics, so static electricity The problem is more prominent. The harm of static electricity is generally manifested in clothes that are easy to pillle, are prone to dust and dirt, and have electric shock and sticky feeling on the skin. If you carry sophisticated electronic devices such as electronic compasses, altitude meters, GPS navigators, etc., it may be disturbed by the static electricity of the clothes and cause errors, with serious consequences.



Any object rubbing against each other may generate static electricity, but only dry insulating objects can accumulate static electricity and cause damage. Therefore, the best antistatic fabrics are naturally woven into natural fibers, but as mentioned above, natural fibers are difficult to meet the special requirements of outdoor sports, and even natural fibers, due to the lack of water molecules in very dry environments It causes static electricity. There are two main anti-static finishing methods for fabrics: First, simply weave metal wires into fabrics to form conductive fabrics (also electromagnetic shielding fabrics and radiation protection fabrics), and dissipate the static electricity generated by friction to the outside world in time. . However, this type of fabric is not suitable for use in sportswear, mainly because it is not soft and comfortable. Another method is to use block-type polyethers, polyacrylates and other antistatic agents with hygroscopicity. Apply a layer of chemical film that can adsorb water molecules to the fabric surface to form a continuous conductive water film on the fabric surface. Dissipate static electricity.



Due to the relative thinning of the atmosphere in high altitude areas, the filtering effect on ultraviolet light is greatly reduced, and the intensity of ultraviolet light is much higher than in low altitude areas. Ultraviolet rays can effectively promote the formation of vitamins and have a bactericidal effect, but excessive intense irradiation can cause damage to human skin. The penetrating power of the ultraviolet rays is very strong, and the fiber fabric does not completely shield its radiation. Nano-scale inorganic titanium dioxide (TiO2), zinc oxide (ZnO) and other ultraviolet shielding agents and organic salicylic acid, cyanoacrylate, benzophenone, benzotriazole and other UV absorbers, using resin Cross-linking method is fixed on the fabric, it can play a certain role in radiation protection.



It can be said that outdoor sportswear represents the latest cutting-edge technology in the development of today's textile science. This is also an important reason for the seemingly inconspicuous mountaineering jackets and Trousers that can move hundreds of thousands or even thousands of dollars (of course not ruled out, either). Brand value and functional style and other factors). Although the price is not low, a set of professional outdoor sportswear that integrates windproof, breathable, moisture-proof, warmth-keeping, radiation protection and other properties may sometimes have the same meaning as a life for a climber! However, due to the diversity, complexity, and unpredictability of outdoor sports, there may be many different requirements for the function of clothing due to the different environments and sports methods. Therefore, in terms of current science and technology, outdoor sportswear The overall performance is still difficult to achieve all aspects of perfection.